Coding Rules for the Hall/Van de Castle System of Quantitative Dream Content Analysis

This information is published with the permission of Prof. G. William Domhoff, UCSC. Before delving into the coding rules, you may want to read Dr. Domhoff's introduction to content analysis.

These pages present the original Hall/Van de Castle dream coding system—complete with coding examples for each category—with only a few stylistic changes and updates. It is included here and in Domhoff's book because the book in which the coding system appeared has been out of print for many years. The examples help to maintain coding continuity with the past. No one should hesitate to return to the rules and examples when there is the slightest question about how to code an element. Very few people, if any, have been able to use very many categories of the coding system without referring back to the coding rules. The system needs to be understood and mastered through hours of practice, but it need not be memorized.

In another section of Dr. Domhoff's Web site, you'll find some real dreams which have been coded; these can be very helpful when you're learning the Hall/Van de Castle coding system.

To get a feel for the end results of using the system, you may want to take a look at the Hall/Van de Castle Norms (to which you will likely end up comparing your results, if you do a study) or Dr. Domhoff's published findings.

Click on one of the following links to see the rules for coding that dream element:


Social Interactions

(walking, talking, seeing, thinking, etc.)

Success and Failure

Misfortune and Good Fortune




Descriptive Elements
(modifiers, time, negatives)

The Classification and Coding of Characters

Definition of a Character

Codeable Items
Noncodeable Items

Classes of Characters


Coding the Characters
Additional Coding Rules
Summary of Coding Symbols


Characters—people, animals, and mythical figures—are present in most dream reports, and the chief character in almost every dream is the dreamer. Since characters are usually so central to all else that appears or happens in a dream narrative, it is appropriate to start our discussion of the coding system with them.

Because the dreamer is such a constant factor in almost every dream, the first decision in constructing the coding system was not to list the dreamer as a character nor code him or her among the classes of characters listed below. To include the dreamer would be redundant. It should be pointed out, however, that in subsequent sections the dreamer's emotions and interactions with other characters and with the environment are always categorized and coded. Consequently, the dreamer is given a coding symbol, which is D.

Definition of a Character

Characters, as already mentioned, consist of people, animals, or mythical figures. They are "coded" as characters, meaning they are "categorized" or "classified," when any one of the conditions set forth below can be satisfied. It should be kept in mind that the term character is used to refer both to an individual person or animal and also to a group of such individuals. A couple or a crowd is therefore called a character. In the examples that are included to help make each coding rule more understandable, CAPITAL LETTERS are used to indicate codeable items, while italics are used for noncodeable items. However, neither capitals nor italics will be used to designate the dreamer.

In the following cases, characters are counted:

1. The character is described as being physically present in the dream:
"I met a GIRL FRIEND for lunch."
"My FATHER drove me and my BROTHER to school."
"A GIRL was being chased by a GANG OF MEN."
"I saw a DEER and raised my gun to fire."
"A GIANT walked out of the woods."

2. The character is heard or seen by some form of communication but he or she is not physically present in the dream:
"I spoke with my WIFE on the telephone."
"LOWELL THOMAS was giving the news on radio."
"I was watching DANNY KAYE on television."
"A telegram arrived from UNCLE FRANK."
"I saw a movie. LASSIE was in it."
"There was a picture of CHRIST on the wall."
"The painting had a LOT OF ANIMALS in it."

3. The character is mentioned in the dream report:
"The POLICE were supposed to come."
"My FRIENDS were going to meet me at the station."
"My HUSBAND was in New York."
"VAN GOGH is my favorite painter."
"I was saving my money to buy a HORSE."
"I expected to see a GHOST in the old house."

4. A character is referred to in order to establish the ownership of an object or the relationship of the character to another character:
"I went into my BROTHER'S room."
"My FAMILY'S car is a blue Ford."
"I was wearing my SISTER'S dress."
"I saw GRANT'S tomb."
"The BOYFRIEND of my best FRIEND came to visit me."
"MR. SMITH'S DOG began to bark."

5. A part of the character appears in the dream:
"I just saw the legs of the BAND MEMBERS marching down the street."
"The head of DONALD DUCK was sticking out of the bag."
"I held my BOYFRIEND'S hand."

Do not code any of the following cases as characters:

1. A character is referred to in a generic sense:
"Everyone has a right to happiness."
"I wonder if people believe in ghosts anymore."
"Anyone can do that."
"No one seemed to be reacting but me."
"Dogs are friendly animals."

2. A character is referred to in order to establish that it is not
that character but another character:
"I was with another BOY, not my boyfriend."
"It was my OLDER SISTER, not my younger one."
"They were OLD WOMEN, not witches."

3. A character is not mentioned in the dream report but his or her presence is implied by the action that is described:
"I heard guns being fired."
"My car was run into by another car."
"The airplane took off and suddenly burst into flames before crashing." ****
Classes of Characters
After the characters of a dream have been determined using the foregoing criteria, each codeable character, except animal characters, is classified under each of the four following headings:

The order of these headings is from the more general to the more specific, and the coding system for characters used throughout this book always appears in the sequence of: Number, Sex, Identity, and Age.


Number refers to whether a single individual or a group of characters is involved. There may be any number from two to a very large number in a group, but no distinction is made in this coding system between groups of different sizes.

1. An individual character is one who is described in the dream report as being a separate and distinct entity. This ordinarily means that he or she is described as doing something or being somebody or having certain characteristics which sets him apart from others:
"The CLERK showed me a pair of shoes."
"I asked my TEACHER if I could speak to my GIRL FRIEND."
"I was being chased by a WITCH riding a black HORSE."
"ONE DOG was a collie, and the OTHER DOG was a poodle."

2. A group consists of two or more individuals who are not individually identified or distinguished:
"I went home to visit my PARENTS."
"THREE BOYS whistled at me."
"A HERD OF BUFFALO was running across the field."
"A big CROWD gathered around the wreck."
"I was attending a meeting of the BOARD OF DIRECTORS."
"The SEVEN DWARFS marched across the stage."

The coding symbol for an individual character is 1; for a group, the coding symbol is 2.

Animals are classified as individuals or groups, but they are not classified by Sex, Identity, or Age. (Coding symbol: 1ANI for a single animal; 2ANI for a group of animals.)

In addition to the two gender subclasses of male and female, there has to be a subclass for groups made up of both genders, and a subclass for characters whose gender is not known by the dreamer or whose gender is not clearly identified in the dream report.

1. Male (Coding symbol: M). Classify as Male any character identified as being male, or for whom the masculine pronoun is used, or whose role is typically a male one:
"The MAN spoke to me."
"HE was coming closer and closer and then I awoke."
"The POLICEMAN stopped me."
"The two FOOTBALL TEAMS lined up on the field."

2. Female (Coding symbol: F). Classify as Female any character identified as being female, or for whom the feminine pronoun is used, or whose role is typically a female one:
"This GIRL threw me a towel."
"My teacher gave me an angry look and then SHE asked me to leave the room."

If a character changes gender in the course of a dream, classify the character as both male and female. See below under Metamorphoses for a description of such changes and how to treat them.

3. Joint Gender Group (Coding symbol: J). Classify a group as a Joint Gender Group when the group is described as being made up of both males and females or when the group is known by its nature to consist of both genders, or when the group is a large one so that it might be expected to include members of both genders:

"There were both MEN AND WOMEN in the audience."
"My PARENTS asked me where I was going."
"There was a large CROWD in the street."

4. Indefinite Gender (Coding symbol: I). Classify as Indefinite Gender any character or small group whose gender is not identified in the dream report. Classify also as Indefinite Gender any character who is identified by occupational role alone, when that occupational role may be either a masculine or feminine one:
"SOMEONE hurried by me."
"There were a FEW OTHER PEOPLE in the room."
"The TEACHER wrote something on the blackboard."

There are eight subclasses of identity. These subclasses are arranged below in a hierarchical order of decreasing familiarity to the dreamer. If a character can be assigned to more than one identity subclass, he or she should always be coded for the subclass indicating the greater familiarity, e.g., "my family doctor" is coded as Known (subclass 3) rather than Occupational (subclass 5).

1. Immediate family members of the dreamer. The following table, containing relevant coding symbols, is inclusive:

Father (F) Husband (H) Child (C)
Mother (M) Wife (W) Infant or Baby (I)
Parents (X) Son (A) Family member (Y)
Brother (B) Daughter (D)
Sister (T)

2. Relatives of the dreamer (Coding symbol: R). These are characters other than immediate family members who are related to the dreamer by blood, marriage, or adoption. The following list is illustrative and not exhaustive:

Grandmother Nephew Stepmother
Grandfather Niece Foster father
Aunt Cousin Ex-husband
Uncle Brother-in-law Half-brother

3. Known characters (Coding symbol: K). If it seems clear that the dreamer is currently, or was formerly, personally acquainted with a character or the probability seems very high that the dreamer could, if requested to do so, identify by name a character in his dream, the character is coded as Known. If a large majority of a group consist of familiar characters, code the group as Known:
"My ROOMMATE cut her hand."
"The BOY who lives next door came over."
"Our POSTMAN handed me a letter."
"My BOSS gave me a lot of work to do."
"My CLASSMATES were all wearing class rings."
"My FRIEND'S BOYFRIEND bought a new car."
"Some BUDDIES of my FRATERNITY BROTHER drove by the house."

4. Prominent persons (Coding symbol: P). Score as Prominent any character who is well known by her or his general reputation but who is not known personally by the dreamer. Fictional, dramatic, imaginary, and supernatural figures are also coded under this heading as they are usually familiar because of their reputation. (See #7 in the additional coding rules for more about the coding of fictional, dramatic, imaginary, and supernatural characters.)
"I saw WINSTON CHURCHILL sitting at the end of the table."
"It was like I was seeing a cartoon strip with ORPHAN ANNIE in it."
"HAMLET walked out on the stage holding his sword in front of him."
"Then GOD appeared and said everything would be all right."

5. Occupational identification (Coding symbol: O).
Any character whose occupation is designated but who is not otherwise identified by the dreamer as being more familiar is coded as Occupational. Occupation includes not only vocations and professions and other forms of gainful employment, but also avocations such as stamp collector, golfer, and hunter, as well as illegal or non-sanctioned pursuits such as gangster and prostitute. A student at any educational level who is not otherwise identified as being more familiar is coded O.
"The WAITRESS asked me what I wanted to eat."
"The ARMY OFFICER pointed his gun at the SOLDIER."
"The JUDGE said I was guilty and sentenced me to death."
"The CHOIR sang a hymn."
"The man turned out to be a COUNTERFEITER."

6. Ethnic, nationality, and regional identifications (Coding symbol: E). These are characters whose race, nationality, or regional identification is designated but who are not otherwise identified as being more familiar by the dreamer.
"I was being tortured by INDIANS."
"I dreamed I was living with a GERMAN FAMILY."
"This man who was a SOUTHERNER said he knew all about growing cotton."

7. Strangers (Coding symbol: S). A character is considered a stranger if the dreamer specifically indicates the character is unknown or unfamiliar or his identity remains hidden because the character is faceless or wearing a mask. If, from the language used in the dream report, the probability seems very high that this is the first time that the dreamer has become acquainted with the character, the character is coded as a Stranger. A crowd, unless otherwise being identified as more familiar, is coded as a group of Strangers:
"There was a little BOY I had never seen before."
"I was being chased by some mean-looking MEN."
"I was lost in the CROWD."

8. Uncertain identity (Coding symbol: U). The dream report frequently does not contain sufficient information as to whether a character is known or a stranger to the dreamer. When degree of familiarity cannot be established, the character is coded as Uncertain. In addition to coding vague character descriptions as Uncertain, this coding is also used when the character is described as known in the dream but this character cannot be identified later by the dreamer when he or she is reporting his dream:
"I was with a bunch of KIDS my age."
"SOMEONE asked me if I were going to the meeting."
"I showed this GIRL my engagement ring."
"I was mad because THEY wouldn't let me out of the cellar."
"Several BOYS asked me to dance."
"A MAN had called me while I was at the store."
"I wasn't sure that I knew HIM."
"I was with a GIRL FRIEND but I didn't know who she was."
"This FELLOW ... I knew him in the dream but I can't remember him now ... took me for a ride in his car."

Age There are four age groups. These are arranged below in order of decreasing chronological age.

1. Adult (Coding symbol: A). All characters are coded as Adults unless they meet the requirements for inclusion in one of the other three age groups.

2. Teenager (Coding symbol: T). Any character whose age is indicated as being from 13 through 17, or whom from the context of the dream report appears to be an adolescent, should be included in this age group. All high school students, whether of junior or senior level, are coded as Teenagers. All college students are coded as Adults. The use of such terms as kid, youth, boy or girl does not in itself identify a character as a teenager since these terms are also used in referring to other age groups. The decision as to how to classify characters referred to by these terms has to depend upon the context in which they are used. Friends and acquaintances of teenage dreamers are presumed to be teenagers unless otherwise stated.

3. Child (Coding symbol: C). Any character whose age is from one through 12 or who is referred to as a child is included in this age group. Any elementary school pupil is coded as a Child.

4. Baby (Coding symbol: B). A character who is less than one year old or who is referred to as an infant or baby is coded Baby, except when the word baby is used as a term of endearment or one of reproach for a character who is older than one year.

Coding the Characters
The procedure for coding characters is illustrated in this section. In actual practice, the characters in a dream report are classified and coded at the same time. The order of coding is Number, Sex, Identity, and Age. It will be recalled that italics are used for all individuals except the dreamer who should not be coded as characters.

"My FATHER AND MOTHER (2JXA) were in the AUDIENCE (2JUA) when I sang one of COLE PORTER'S (1MPA) songs."

"My TEENAGE BROTHER (1MBT) got the measles so I couldn't go out with my BOYFRIEND (1MKA)."

"My SISTER-IN-LAW (1FRA) invited me to come over and see the INFANT TWINS (2IRB) she had just adopted from Children's Hospital."

"Three of my CLASSMATES (2IKA) and several of my FRATERNITY BROTHERS (2MKA) were standing around at the party with a lot of older PEOPLE (2JUA)."

"I dreamed I had a date with SOPHIA LOREN (1FPA), and she told me how difficult the life of a movie star is."

"A parade of INFANTRYMEN (2MOA) marched by and ONE OF THEM (1MOA) was riding a HORSE (1ANI) and ANOTHER (1MOA) was leading a pair of HORSES (2ANI)."

"A group of my FRIENDS (2IUA) ... well, anyway I think they were my friends, but I can't be sure now ... came over to the house and said my BROTHER'S (1MBA) car had been stolen by an ORIENTAL MAN (1MEA) and that I should call the POLICE (2JOA)."

"When I finally walked past the last GUARD (1IOA) and into the PRESIDENT'S (1MPA) office, there were all these FAMOUS PEOPLE (2JPA) and they were looking at a picture of the Washington monument. Some MAN (1MSA) I didn't know began to slash at the picture with a knife until the White House GUARDS (2IOA) came running and took him off to jail. No one seemed to notice that I was there. The next thing I remember I was home with my MOTHER (1FMA) and STEPFATHER (1MRA) and they were asking me whether I wanted to be a doctor or lawyer. There was SOMEONE (1IUA) else in the room, too, and I heard some DOG (1ANI) barking outside, and that's all I can remember of that dream."

"I was in a room with TWO PEOPLE (2ISA) who were strangers to me and a CHILD (1IUC) and a BABY (1IUB). The RUSSIANS (2IEA) began to break down the door, and I hid in a secret room that my GRANDFATHER (1MRA) had built for just such an emergency. The room was full of SPIDERS (2ANI) that were covered with little green ANTS (2ANI). Three BOYS (2MUA) discovered my hiding place, and they were going to tell on me. ONE OF THE BOYS (1MKA) turned out to be my BROTHER'S (1MBA) friend and then I remember I had seen him around the house. He asked me if my brother had got out of the Army yet and I said he might go to OTS and become an officer."

It sometimes happens in a dream that a character changes his or her sex, identity, or age in the course of the dream. It is also possible for a human being to change into an animal or vice versa. When this occurs, the character is coded in its original form and for its metamorphosis as well.

The numeral 7 is the coding symbol used for the original form and the numeral 8 is used for his changed form. These numerals precede the character's coding symbol and appear in the same number column normally used to indicate whether an individual or group character is involved. If a character dies or a dead character comes to life, this is not coded as a metamorphosis.

"My GIRL FRIEND (7FKA) suddenly changed into my BOYFRIEND (8MKA)."

"When I turned around the DOCTOR (7IOA) had turned into my FATHER (8MFA)."

"The MAN (7MUA) grew smaller and smaller until he was a CHILD (8MUC)."

"A BEAR (7ANI) was chasing me, and then it was no longer a bear but a strange MAN (8MSA)."

Additional Coding Rules

1. A character who makes several appearances in the same dream should be coded only once in each dream.

2. If several characters are simply enumerated and the dreamer does not further describe the appearance or activities of any of these individual characters at any point in the dream, the enumerated characters are coded as a single group.
"My mother, father, brother, and sister (2JYA) came to my graduation."
"I was being chased by a lion, a tiger, and two snakes (2ANI)."
"First, one man, then another, and another (2MUA) climbed the ladder and entered my room."

3. If some, but not all, of the members of a group are distinguished with regard to appearance or activities as individuals, code as an individual character each of them who is so distinguished and code the remainder as a group.
"My whole FAMILY (2JYA), all ten of us, were sitting around talking in the living room. My FATHER (1MFA) got up to fix the fire and then started to talk to my oldest BROTHER (1MBA), who began to laugh."
"A GROUP OF FIREFIGHTERS (2IOA) marched by. ONE (1IOA) was very tall and ONE OF THEM (1IOA) waved at me."

4. If one or more small groups are differentiated out of a large group because of their appearance or activities, code both the small groups and the large group.
"There was a big CROWD (2JUA) at the party. THREE SOLDIERS (2MOA) were fooling around and began a fight with THREE SAILORS (2MOA)."

5. If the dreamer says that a character might be either one person or another person, code for the first mentioned character unless the dreamer later resolves his uncertainty.
"I wasn't sure whether it was my MOTHER (1FMA) or my wife."

6. The numeral 3 is the coding symbol used to indicate individual dead characters; numeral 4 is the symbol for a group of dead characters. These numerals appear in place of the numerals 1 or 2 which would have been employed if the characters were not dead. The numerals 3 or 4 are not used if a character dies during the dream. "I cried as I saw my FATHER'S (3MFA) body in the coffin." "There were the corpses of SEVERAL YOUNG WOMEN (4FSA) whom I didn't know."
"These STRANGERS (2MSA) were laughing when suddenly they dropped dead with a horrible look on their faces."

7. The numeral 5 is the coding symbol used to indicate a single imaginary character or one that is a fictional or dramatic portrayal; the numeral 6 is used to indicate a group of imaginary characters. These numerals precede the character's coding symbol and appear in the same number column ordinarily used to indicate individual or group status. These numerals, therefore, appear in place of the numerals 1 or 2 which would have been employed if the characters were not imaginary.
"I was so surprised because in my dream I was going to a dance with SUPERMAN (5MPA)."
"She was playing the part of QUEEN VICTORIA (5FPA)."
"I dreamed I gave birth to TWINS (6IIB), but I'm not even pregnant.

8. Very infrequently, a character cannot be identified as either human or animal, or is referred to as a creature. In either case, code it as a Creature (Scoring symbol: CZZ).
"SOMETHING (1CZZ) was chasing me. I couldn't tell what it was."
"Then these ROBOT-LIKE CREATURES (2CZZ) climbed on my bed and I was terrified."

Summary of Coding Symbols
The following table presents an overall view of the various coding symbols employed for characters:

1 individual
2 group
3 individual dead
4 group dead
5 individual imaginary
6 group imaginary
7 original form
8 changed form
M male
F female
J joint
I indefinite
F father
M mother
X parents
B brother
T sister
H husband
W wife
A son
D daughter
C child
I infant
Y family members
R relative
K known
P prominent
O occupational
E ethnic
S stranger
U uncertain
A adult
T teenager
C child
B baby

The Classification and Coding of Social Interactions: Aggression

Introduction to Social Interactions

Aggressive Interactions
Subclasses of Aggressions
Terminology Employed for Aggressive Interactions
Procedure for Coding Aggressive Interactions

Coding Rules

With the cast of characters introduced and listed on the dream program, attention can now be devoted to the unfolding of the play. Lines will be spoken, characters will move about the stage, and the plot will develop. The relative emphasis given to dialogue as contrasted with actions will depend upon the author of the dream and the message he or she wishes to express. A character's remarks may serve to insult, flatter, or "proposition" another character, or a character may act by assaulting, supporting, or seducing another character. These social interactions may occur between individual characters or sometimes groups of characters may be involved.

In treating the social interactions present in dreams, we code three classes:
aggressive, friendly and sexual interactions. Coding procedures are identical for these three classes and the same notational system is also followed for some of the activities that will be discussed in the next section. This section will deal only with social interactions.

Aggressive Interactions
The first class of social interaction to be described is that of aggression. We code eight subclasses of aggression, which are numbered from 1 to 8. Those numbered from 1 to 4 involve various forms of non-physical aggression. Verbal remarks comprise the most frequent form of nonphysical aggression, although on occasion, expressive behavior may be used for the same purpose. Feelings of aggression which the character experiences but which do not reach any overt level of expression are also included within this grouping. The subclasses numbered from 5 to 8 involve various forms of physical aggression. Included are those acts where a character kills, hits, chases, or robs another character.

It should be noted that in all the subclasses that follow, except for Al, the situations involve a deliberate, intentional act on the part of one character to harm or annoy some other character. The classification of Misfortunes, which will be discussed in a later section, is used to handle those situations where injury, mishap, or adversity occurs to a character through chance or environmental circumstances over which it is impossible to exert personal control.

Subclasses of Aggressions

A8: An aggressive act which results in the death of a character.
"This dark stranger sprang at the blonde woman and HACKED HER TO PIECES with a big knife."
"I SQUASHED the bug with my foot."

A7: An aggressive act which involves an attempt to physically harm a character. The attempt may be carried out through personal assault or through use of a weapon. Threatening a character with a weapon is also included in this subclass.
"I SLAPPED him in the face."
"These two boys were THROWING STONES at each other."
"He POINTED A GUN at me and told me to hurry up."

A6: An aggressive act which involves a character being chased, captured, confined, or physically coerced into performing some act. "I kept trying to run faster but the gorilla was CATCHING UP with me.
"The little baby had been KIDNAPPED by someone."
"The police PUT the suspect IN JAIL."
"HE HELD MY WRIST AND HE PULLED ME ALONG the street with him."

A5: An aggressive act which involves the theft or destruction of possessions belonging to a character.
"My room was all messed up and the TV WAS MISSING."
"He SET FIRE to the farmer's barn."
"She THREW her father's spectacles INTO THE LAKE."

A4: An aggressive act in which a serious accusation or verbal threat of harm is made against a character.
"Jim told his boss that if he didn't stop, he was GOING TO PUNCH HIM ON THE NOSE."

A3: This subclass covers all situations where there is an attempt by one character to reject, exploit, control, or verbally coerce another character. Such activity may be expressed through dismissals, demands, refusals, disobedience, or any other type of negativistic or deceitful behavior.
"My boyfriend from back home sent me a letter saying that HE WASN'T GOING TO WRITE ME ANYMORE."
"She TURNED HER BACK on her husband and WALKED OUT OF THE ROOM."
"This fat lady INSISTED that the crying child finish all his supper."
"My roommate's parents WOULDN'T ALLOW her to go to New York."
"I found out that my brother HAD LIED ABOUT ME to my teacher."

A2: Aggression displayed through verbal or expressive activity. Included are such activities as one character yelling or swearing at another or when a character criticizes or scowls at another.
"I could hear the couple next door ARGUING."

A1: Covert feeling of hostility or anger without any overt expression of aggression.
"I KEPT GETTING MADDER AND MADDER at him but never said anything."
"I FELT LIKE SPANKING my son but I didn't."

Terminology Employed for Aggressive Interactions
In order for an aggressive act to occur, some character usually initiates the activity and some character has this aggressive activity directed against him. The character who initiates the aggression is called the aggressor, and the person who is the recipient of the aggression is called the victim. If the victim responds with any type of counteraggression, it is called a reciprocated aggression. In those cases where no aggressor or victim can be clearly identified because the characters are engaging in the same aggressive activity at the same time, the interaction is called a mutual aggression.

It will be recalled that in the preceding section, the dreamer was not listed as a character because he or she is present in virtually every dream. The dreamer is coded (coding symbol: D), however, for interactions, because he or she is a participant in many of them. Aggressions in which the dreamer is not a participant are called witnessed aggressions. When a character aggresses against himself or herself, this is called a self-directed aggression.

Procedure for Coding Aggressive Interactions
In the examples given below, it will be seen that the coding symbol for the aggressor is written first. The type of aggression displayed by the aggressor is then indicated by placing the number of the appropriate subclass after the coding symbol for the aggressor. This is followed by a "sideward V" (>) pointing toward the coding symbol for the character who is the victim. Reciprocated aggressions are designated by placing the letter R after the aggressive subclass number rather than a sideward V. Mutual aggressions are indicated by an equal sign (=). If more than one character is involved, either as aggressor or victim, the coding symbols for the characters are joined by plus signs (+). Self-directed aggressions are denoted by placing an asterisk (*) after the number of the aggressive subclass.

"I HIT my brother with all my might on the head."
D 7>1MBA
"My girl friend SAID I WAS A TIGHTWAD."
"This fellow and I started to TRADE PUNCHES."
D 7= 1MUA
"This tough-looking guy started to TIE UP the policeman."
"The two boys... I should judge they were about 15... were CALLING EACH OTHER BAD NAMES."
"As I entered my bedroom, my mother who had been sweeping the floor and my sister who had been cleaning the woodwork suddenly took all my clothes out of the closet and began THROWING ALL MY CLOTHES OUT the window."
"This sinister-looking man LUNGED AT ME with a club in his hand so I KICKED HIM in the groin."
D 7>1FUA
"She told her husband she WAS GOING TO GET A DIVORCE. Then he grabbed a gun from the drawer and KILLED HER."
D 2*
"The old man started to SLASH HIS OWN WRISTS."
Coding Rules 1. It is considered an aggressive act even though the aggressor may be a sanctioned agent of punishment or professionally employed for such a purpose.
"My nine-year-old cousin Tommy was BEING SPANKED BY HIS MOTHER."

2. Criticism of a character's possessions is treated as criticism of the character himself.

"My sorority sister said that MY NEW FORMAL LOOKED VERY UNATTRACTIVE."
"My 16-year-old brother Jack said MY CAR SHOULD BE IN A JUNK YARD."
3. If the aggressor or the victim is unknown, use a Q to indicate this lack of identification.
"The miners REFUSED to go to work."
"The company FIRED me."
Q 3>D

4. If there is a continued sequence of aggressive acts between the same aggressor and victim and these acts are identical as to the subclass of aggression involved, only one aggression is coded.

"This big sailor PUSHED the little sailor, then began hitting him, and after he had knocked him down, he began to kick him."
5. If more than one aggressive act takes place between the same aggressor and victim, code each aggression where a different subclass of aggressions occurs and indicate this linkage by placing a { mark in front of the linked aggressive interactions.
"This wild-looking fellow came out of the alley and approached my boyfriend Sam and me. He CALLED SAM YELLOW, then he said he WAS GOING TO CALL HIS GANG TO TAKE CARE OF SAM. We didn't say or do anything, and then he TOOK A KNIFE AND STARTED TOWARD Sam."
unknown 1MSA 2> 1MKA
1MSA 4> 1MKA
1MSA 7> 1MKA

6. When aggressive acts are separated in time through intervening events, code each aggression even if the same subclass of aggression is involved between the same aggressor and victim.

"I RIPPED UP some of my husband's love letters from an old girl friend that were up in the attic but then thought about it and quit. I went downstairs and started to sew. After awhile I turned on TV but I kept thinking about the other letters so I went back up to the attic and RIPPED UP all the rest of them."
D 5>1MHA
D 5>1MHA

7. Reciprocated aggressions are coded according to the same rules that are applied to initiated aggressions.

The Classification and Coding of Social Interactions: Friendliness

Friendly Interactions
Subclasses of Friendliness
Terminology Employed for Friendly Interactions
Procedure for Coding Friendly Interactions

Coding Rules

Friendly Interactions
The second type of social interaction that we code is friendliness. Seven subclasses of friendliness are distinguished below. These subclasses cannot be grouped as easily as the aggressive ones into physical versus nonphysical or verbal forms of expression. Once again, we urge that the numbers associated with the subclasses not be treated as if they represented some measure of intensity or strength of response. The various subclasses discussed below all involve a deliberate, purposeful attempt on the part of one character to express friendliness toward another. This may eventuate in some pleasant outcome for the person receiving the friendliness. The classification of Good Fortunes, to be discussed in a later section, is used to handle those situations where some pleasant outcome (e.g., finding money) occurs as the result of environmental circumstances rather than as a result of personal interaction with another character.

Subclasses of Friendliness

F7 Friendliness expressed through a desire for a long-term close relationship with a character. Included in this subclass are getting married, becoming engaged, and falling in love.
"I dreamed my boyfriend and I WERE GETTING MARRIED in this unusual-looking church."
"I was so happy because my boyfriend had just GIVEN ME A BEAUTIFUL ENGAGEMENT RING."

F6 Friendliness expressed through socially acceptable forms of physical contact. Included in this subclass are such acts as shaking hands, cuddling a baby, and dancing. Kissing and embracing are also included when they are clearly nonsexual in intent. Sexual activity is not included here but is treated later in this section as a separate interaction.
"My son began TO PET the new puppy."
"I was so glad to see Mom that I GAVE HER A BIG KISS."
"My brother gave me A PAT ON THE SHOULDER."

F5 Friendliness expressed by taking the initiative in requesting a character to share in a pleasant social activity. Included are situations where one character requests another to accompany him to some event, asks for a date, and visits someone. In the latter case, friendliness is coded because visiting implies someone is taking the initiative or an active role in furthering a relationship with another character. Simply associating with a character or jointly participating in an activity is not coded as a friendly act.
"My roommate ASKED ME TO SPEND THE WEEKEND at her home."
"I phoned Judy to ASK FOR A DATE."
"The boy I had a date with and I went bowling."

F4 Friendliness expressed through extending assistance to a character or offering to do so. Included in this subclass are helping, protecting, and rescuing acts.
"When we received the news, our family BEGAN TO PRAY FOR HIS RECOVERY."
"I found out where the poor child lived and TOOK HER HOME."

F3 Friendliness expressed by offering a gift or loaning a possession to a character.
"John GAVE ME A LOVELY BLANKET for our anniversary."
"I let my brother BORROW MY CAR for the trip."

F2 This subclass covers a wide variety of expressions of friendliness that may be conveyed through either verbal or gestural means. Included are such activities as welcoming, greeting, waving hello or goodbye, introducing one person to another person, smiling at someone, phoning or writing someone for a friendly purpose, and sympathizing with or praising someone.
"He TOOTED THE CAR HORN IN RECOGNITION as he passed me on the street."
"I COMPLIMENTED Jean on her new dress."

F1 Friendliness is felt toward a character but it is not expressed overtly.
"I FELT SO GOOD INSIDE just to be with Tom."
"I FELT VERY SORRY when I heard what happened to Mrs. Smith."

Terminology Employed for Friendly Interactions
The initiator of a friendly act is called the befriender, and the recipient of a friendly act is called the befriended. If the befriended responds with any type of friendliness, it is called reciprocated friendliness. In those cases where no befriender or befriended can be clearly identified because the characters are engaging in the same friendly exchange at the same time, the interaction is called mutual friendliness. If the dreamer does not participate in the friendly interaction, it is called witnessed friendliness. When a character may express friendliness to himself or herself it is called self-directed friendliness.

Procedure for Coding Friendly Interactions
The procedures are exactly the same as those for coding aggressive interactions. The coding symbol for the befriender is written first, followed by the number of the appropriate subclass. Next the "sideward V" (>) appears and points toward the coding symbol for the befriended character. Reciprocated friendliness is denoted by placing the letter R after the friendly subclass number rather than a sideward V. Mutual friendliness is indicated by an equal sign (=). If more than one character is involved, either as befriender or befriended, the coding symbols for the characters are joined by a plus sign (+). Self-directed friendliness is indicated by placing an asterisk after the number of the friendly subclass.

"I noticed this little kitten meowing high in the tree. I CLIMBED UP AND BROUGHT IT DOWN."
D 4>1ANI
"Mother had sent some kind of CONGRATULATORY CARD to the Browns on the birth of their new son."
"Jim and I rushed toward each other, then STARTED TO SHAKE HANDS AND SLAP EACH OTHER ON THE BACK."
D 6= 1MKA
"The principal came from the burning school building CARRYING a little girl. Just before he put her down, SHE GAVE HIM A BIG HUG."
D 2*

Coding Rules 1. It is considered to be a friendly act even though the befriender may be acting in a societal or professional role.

"I dreamed our house caught on fire and a FIREMAN HELPED ME CLIMB DOWN A LADDER from the second floor."
"The DOCTOR SET my baby's broken leg."

2. If a character treats another character's possessions in a friendly manner, it is coded as a friendly treatment of the character himself.

"My girl friend ADMIRED MY NEW CAR."

3. If the befriender or the befriended is not specified in the dream report, use Q to indicate this lack of identification.

"The WELCOME WAGON left some gifts for me."
Q 3>D
"I gave the CHURCH a hundred dollars."
D 3>Q

4. If there is a continued sequence of friendly acts between the same befriender and befriended characters and these acts involve the same subclass of friendliness, only one friendly act is coded.

"After class, she SMILED, said 'Hello,' and then began to tell the professor how much she enjoyed his lecture."

5. If more than one friendly act takes place between the same befriender and befriended characters, code each different subclass of friendly acts separately and indicate their linkage by placing a { mark in front of the linked interactions.

"The truck driver gave me a BIG SMILE and then she HELPED me change the tire."
1FOA 2> D
1FOA 4> D
6. When friendly acts are separated in time through intervening events, code each friendly act even if the same subclass of friendliness is involved between the same befriender and befriended characters.
"I WAVED HELLO to Sally as I walked into Grants. I bought some records, watched part of a TV show, and ate lunch at the snack bar there. As I walked out the door I saw Sally again and WAVED HELLO a second time."
D 2>1FKA
D 2>1FKA

7. Reciprocated friendliness is coded according to the same rules that are applied for initiated friendliness.

The Classification and Coding of Social Interactions: Sexuality

Sexual Interactions
Subclasses of Sexual Interactions
Terminology Employed for Sexual Interactions
Procedure for Coding Sexual Interactions

Coding Rules

Sexual Interactions
The remaining class of social interactions is sexual. Five subclasses of sexual interaction are described below. The most frequent form of sexual expression involves some type of physical contact, although we have one subclass to handle sexual fantasies.

Subclasses of Sexual Interactions

S5 A character has or attempts to have sexual intercourse with another character.
"My girl was willing and I was just getting ready to INSERT MY PENIS when I woke up."

S4 This subclass involves the various types of non-intercourse activities often preceding intercourse. Included are handling another character's sex organs and related fondling and petting activities. Masturbation is also included in this category.
"I dreamed I looked in the window across the street and I saw this man I didn't recognize FONDLING THE NEIGHBOR LADY'S BREASTS."

S3 This subclass covers necking and "nonplatonic" kissing. Kissing as a form of greeting, e.g., between family members, is coded under friendliness.
"And then my boyfriend KISSED me long and hard."

S2 A character makes sexual overtures to or "propositions" another character.
"This good-looking woman who was a stranger to me SUGGESTED WE GO TO HER APARTMENT AND MAKE LOVE."

S1 A character has sexual thoughts or fantasies about another character.
"I IMAGINED what it would be like to SLEEP WITH Elizabeth Taylor."

Terminology Employed for Sexual Interactions
The character who takes the initiative in starting a sexual interaction is called the initiator; the character who is the object of the sexual interaction is called the recipient. If the recipient responds with any type of sexual activity, it is called reciprocated sexuality. When no initiator or recipient can be clearly identified, the interaction is called a mutual sexuality. If the dreamer does not participate in the sexual interaction, it is called a witnessed sexuality. When a character indulges in solitary sexual activity, it is called self-directed sexuality.

Procedure for Coding Sexual Interactions
The procedure is exactly the same as that for coding the other social interactions. The coding symbol of the initiator is written first, followed by the subclass number and a > pointing toward the coding symbol for the recipient. Reciprocated sexuality is designated by placing the letter R after the sexual subclass number rather than a sideward V. Mutual sexual interactions are indicated by an equal sign. If more than one character is involved, either as initiator or as recipient, the coding symbols for the characters are joined by a plus sign. Self-directed sexuality is denoted by placing an asterisk after the number of the sexual subclass.

Coding Rules

1. It is considered a sexual act even though the initiator is acting in a professional role.

"A red-headed PROSTITUTE walked up and ASKED ME if it were worth fifty dollars for a little fun up in her room."

2. If there is a continued sequence of sexual activities between the same initiator and recipient and these activities involve the same subclass, only one sexual activity is coded.

"I dreamed that J.R. and I were married and it was our wedding night. WE WERE MAKING LOVE and trying out different positions. First J. R. lay on top of me, then we had relations lying on our side, and then finally I got on top of him."
D 5= 1MKA

3. If more than one sexual activity takes place between the same initiator and recipient, code each different subclass involved and indicate their linkage by placing a { mark in front of the linked interactions.

"I was in a hotel room with some gorgeous-looking blond wearing a flimsy nightgown. I walked over to the bed where she was and started to KISS HER. I got into bed and began to RUN MY HANDS OVER HER BODY. Just as I started to ENTER HER, I woke up and had to change my pajamas."
D 3> 1FSA
D 4> 1FSA
D 5> 1FSA

4. When sexual activities are separated in time through intervening events, code each sexual activity even if the same subclass of sex is involved between the same initiator and recipient.

"My boyfriend and I WERE NECKING on my living room couch. My parents came home and we all watched TV for a while and had some coffee later. After they went upstairs to bed, we BEGAN TO NECK AGAIN."
D 3= 1MKA
D 3= 1MKA

5. Reciprocated sexual acts are coded according to the same rules that apply to initiated sexual acts.

The Classification and Coding of Activities

Classes of Activities

Location Change
Expressive Communication

Procedure for Coding Activities

Coding Rules

In this section a system of classifying what characters do in dreams is presented. It includes activities that may be done by a character acting alone or in conjunction with other characters, as well as interactions between characters. We have already taken up some social interactions in the preceding sections on aggression, friendliness, and sexuality. These social interactions and the interactions described in this section are not mutually exclusive. For example, a hostile act of one character hitting another—which would be coded A7 on the aggression scale—is also coded as a physical activity on the activities scale. In the same way, a friendly remark made by one character to another—which would be coded F2 on the friendliness scale of the preceding chapter—is also coded as a verbal activity on the activities scale of this section.

Eight classes of activities are included in our coding system. They are described below.

Classes of Activities

Physical (coding symbol: P)
Any voluntary movement of the whole body or of part of the body while the character remains more or less in one place is coded as a physical activity. Physical activity in a limited spatial area is emphasized, because physical activity such as walking or running which results in the character moving into a different location is coded in the subsequent class of movement. In order for a physical activity to be coded, the nature of the physical activity should be clearly recognizable from the dream report. Reference to a character shopping, for example, is too vague to be coded because the description does not explain the precise activities of the character. It is possible that it might have referred primarily to visual activities, as in window shopping; or to verbal activities, as in telephone shopping or haggling with a merchant; or to movement activities, in walking from store to store; or to physical activities, in handling various objects. A rough criterion that may be employed for judging whether or not a physical activity should be coded is: can the coder, with the information provided in the dream report, pantomime the activity successfully enough so that an observer could correctly identify the activity? If the answer is yes, a physical activity is coded. A few examples of codeable physical activities are: dressing, combing one's hair, brushing one's teeth, sitting down, getting up, bending, writing, picking up an object, and chopping wood.

Movement (coding symbol: M)
When a character changes his physical location by self-propelled movements of his body, a code is given for movement. Change in location through various means of transportation is coded in the subsequent class. Walking and running are the most frequent forms of movement activity but a number of other possibilities such as crawling, sliding, swimming, and climbing are also reported. Terms such as entering or leaving are also codeable if they refer to a character voluntarily carrying out these activities under his own muscular power. Entering a house would be scorable as movement if it seems clear that the character walked into the house, but entering a hospital on a stretcher would not be scorable in this class. Involuntary movements such as falling, slipping, or being thrown through space are not coded as movement.

Location Change (coding symbol: L)
Whenever a character moves in a spatial dimension and arrives at a different location through any means other than self-propelled muscular activity, a location change code is given. The change in location may occur because the character uses some means of transportation such as a car, plane, or boat, or the character may fall through space, be carried, or dragged by someone else. Any verbs which suggest a change in location, even though they are somewhat vague as to just how the change was effected, are grounds for coding a location change. A few examples of such verbs are went, came, arrived, departed, journeyed, and traveled. If a character suddenly finds himself in a new location because there has been an abrupt shift in setting, a location change code should not be entered. In order for a location change code to be given, there must be an indication that the new surroundings have appeared after some intervening travel by the character, even though the means of travel have not been specified. Movement activities such as walking and running which were described in the immediately preceding class are not included in the location change class.

Verbal (coding symbol: V)
Any type of vocalization, whether it be a breakfast conversational grunt, a thundering speech, a whispered affectionate term, an abusive curse, a recited poem, or a dramatic soliloquy, is coded as verbal activity. Singing is also coded as verbal activity.

Expressive Communication (coding symbol: E)
Included in this class are those nonverbal activities associated with emotional states which are sometimes not under voluntary control. Numerically, it is a very infrequently used class. Laughing and crying are the most common forms of expressive communication, although smiling, scowling, baring one's teeth, drooling, and gasping all belong to this class.

Visual (coding symbol: S)
All types of seeing activities are included here. Among the large number of words denoting visual activities are those such as see, notice, read, watch, peek, glance, view, inspect, and distinguish.

Auditory (coding symbol: A)
Whenever a character is described as being engaged in any type of hearing or listening behavior, a code for auditory activity is given.

Thinking (coding symbol: C)
The remaining class consists of the most covert form of activity: thinking activity. In order to be coded as a thinking activity, the description should indicate that deliberate continued mental effort was involved. This thinking should possess a goal-directed or problem-solving quality. Some verbs reflecting this quality of thinking are: concentrate, puzzle over, contemplate, ponder, brood, ruminate, preoccupy, engross, study, weigh, speculate, deliberate, and think about. Attempts to decide, figure out, understand, grasp, and plan are also reflective of the kind of sustained ideation that is included in this class. Brief, transient mental activities are not coded. For example, such reports as "I think it was blue," "I remember the room was familiar," "I forgot my coat," and "I couldn't recognize him" do not convey any sense of prolonged or intentional thinking activity. Wishes, feelings, and sensations represented in such reports as "I wished I were home," "I felt sorry for him," or "I was thrilled by the view" are not included in the thinking class.

Procedure for Coding Activities
Most activities are coded as follows: If the dreamer alone engages in these activities, it will be coded as D X, where X is one of the activity codes (P, M, L, V, E, S, A, or C). If other characters, or the dreamer and other characters, engage in an activity together, the coding symbols for these characters are followed by the coding symbol for the activity class (e.g., 1MFA L). Joint activity by more than one character is indicated by a plus sign.

For two of the activity classes—physical and verbal activities—there can be interactions between two characters. In this case, the coding procedure is identical to that followed for social interactions. If a physical or verbal interaction occurs between two or more characters, the coding symbol for the character beginning the interaction is written first, followed by the letter P or V depending on the class involved, then a sideward V (>), and finally the coding symbol for the character toward whom the activity is directed. A character who is the recipient of a physical activity may return a physical activity to the initiator, or the recipient of a verbal activity may reply with a verbal activity to the initiator. These are called reciprocated physical or verbal activities and are coded by placing the letter R after P or V, in place of a > mark. When the physical or verbal interactions do not have a clearly defined initiator and recipient they are called mutual interactions and are coded by placing an equal sign (=) after the P or V.

Of course, there are quite a large number of physical activities and some occasional verbal activities where only a single character is involved, or where two or more characters are engaged in a parallel physical or verbal activity at the same time. In such cases, the procedure is the same as for all other activities: list the name of the character(s), followed by P or V.

In Hall/Van de Castle's original coding scheme, activities were treated slightly differently. When the dreamer was the only character involved, the "D" was omitted; and when there was no interactive P or V activity, the characters were written to the right of the activity code, separated by a comma. We have changed it slightly so that the data is easier to enter into a computer for further analysis; in our new system, the person(s) involved in the activity are always on the left.

"I PUNCHED this guy in the stomach and then he CONNECTED WITH AN UPPERCUT to my jaw."
"The doctor and I HAD A LONG TALK TOGETHER about my mother's condition."
"I SLICED A PIECE OF BREAD from the loaf on the table."
"When Roger and I finally REACHED THE TOP OF THE MOUNTAIN we rested, and then HE PILED A GROUP OF ROCKS on top of each other to make a marker."
"We LOOKED AT EACH OTHER for awhile and then we both SMILED."

Coding Rules
In order to be coded, an activity must be described as a current or completed activity. Do not code contemplated or anticipated activities. The latter are indicated by such terms as would, could, should, and might. An activity is indicated by the use of a verb. Since a dream report will often contain a large number of verbs, the following rules are intended to serve as a guide with regard to the number of activities that should be coded.

1. A continuous sequence of similar actions performed by the same character is coded as one activity.

"I was TALKING to my young son. I asked him what he did in second grade that day. When he didn't answer, I asked him again. Finally I asked in a very loud voice and he REPLIED, 'Nothing much.'"
"The pitcher THREW the ball and the umpire YELLED, 'Ball one.' The pitcher threw again and the umpire called it a strike. The pitcher threw three more times and the count was three and two. Then the pitcher threw once more and the umpire yelled, 'Strike three.'"

2. A sequence of activities performed by the same character and belonging to the same class are coded as separate activities if they involve different activities.

"I WALKED into the bathroom, TURNED ON the light, TOOK A SHOWER, SHAVED, BRUSHED my teeth, and then COMBED my hair."

3. If activities belonging to the same class are separately engaged in by different characters, they are coded as separate activities.

"I was WALKING down one side of the street and Mary was WALKING down the other side of the street."

4. If activities belonging to the same class are jointly engaged in by different characters, they are coded as a single activity.

"Mary and I were WALKING down the street TOGETHER."

5. If the same character engages in interactional activities with different characters, separate activities are coded.

"I was TALKING to my mother and then my father CAME HOME and I began TALKING to him."
"I SHOOK HANDS WITH my uncle John, then WITH my uncle Henry and then WITH my cousin Jim."

6. If intervening events occur, separate activities are coded even though they involve identical activities, identical characters or identical interactional patterns.

"My sister and I WENT FOR A WALK in the woods. As we turned down one trail, we SAW two squirrels. One squirrel was RUNNING along a branch and the other WAS CRACKING a nut. I HEARD a bluejay and CALLED to my sister to listen. We both LAUGHED at the sound. We then CONTINUED OUR WALK."

The Classification and Coding of Striving: Success and Failure

Coding Procedures for Success and Failure
Coding for Consequences of Success and Failure

Consequences of Success
Consequences of Failure

In dealing with the interactions and activities engaged in by characters, coding attention has been paid, so far, only to whether reciprocal acts follow some initial act. Left out has been an important consideration—does a character succeed or fail in carrying these activities through to some desired outcome? In order to take these results into account, we have developed a classification for striving. Included within this classification are the two classes of Success and Failure.

In our efforts to fashion a workable striving scale, our greatest difficulty was encountered in attempting to decide how much latitude should be allowed for the criteria governing success and failure. We eventually settled on a rather stringent and rigorous standard. First, it must be reasonably clear from the dream report that a character has formulated some definite task to accomplish or goal to achieve and sets out in a deliberate attempt to realize this ambition. If he or she is then successful in pursuing the objective to a satisfactory conclusion, a success is coded; if he or she is unsuccessful, a failure is coded. Coding examples are provided below.

In order for a success to be coded, the character must be described as expending some energy and perseverance in pursuit of his goal. The objective need not be of epic significance; a successful handling of some difficulty encountered in a character's daily life is sufficient to qualify. What is important is that the character is confronted by some problem, decides to deal with it, and then works at its solution before eventually managing to succeed. Any type of magical solution would be coded as a good fortune, which will be discussed in the next section.
"I discovered I had a flat tire so I got my tools and began to change it. It turned out to be a rather difficult job, but I KEPT AT IT AND FINALLY MANAGED TO FIX IT."

"A man was chasing me with a gun. By running down some narrow dark alleys and climbing some high fences, I FINALLY WAS ABLE TO GET AWAY."

"The exam was a tough one but I was determined to get a good grade. I wrote as fast as I could and put down all the examples I had memorized. I FELT SURE THAT I HAD DONE WELL ON IT."

"I had asked this beautiful blond for a date earlier but she said no. I sent her flowers, a box of candy, and a singing telegram. When I called again SHE SAID THAT SHE WOULD GO OUT WITH ME NEXT SATURDAY."

The same prerequisites described for success—willingness to deal with an existing problem and continuing efforts to master it—must also be met before failure can be coded. The difference is only in the matter of outcome. When a character is not able to achieve his or her desired goal because of personal limitations and inadequacies, a failure is coded. If a character is thwarted in the achievement efforts because of some adverse environmental intervention such as a storm or sudden illness, a misfortune is coded.

"I wanted to board this boat and kept trying to climb the ladder but every time I got near the top I SLIPPED BACK INTO THE OCEAN AGAIN."

"When I saw all the parts to the TV lying on the table top, I decided to repair the set. I kept trying to put the parts together but I NEVER WAS ABLE TO ASSEMBLE THEM CORRECTLY."

"My father COULDN'T FIND HIS GLASSES although he looked high and low for them all over the house."

"My sister kept trying to sell a raffle ticket to my uncle. She asked, pleaded, and begged him but no matter what she tried, she still WASN'T ABLE TO SELL HIM ONE."

Coding Procedures for Success and Failure
The coding symbol for the type of achievement is listed first, followed by a comma. The coding symbol for success is SU, for failure it is FL. After the comma, the coding symbols for the relevant characters are recorded. Multiple characters are joined by a plus sign.

"I wanted to hit a home run. After two consecutive strikes, I decided that it would be the next one that I would belt out of the park. I swung real hard and heard the ump yell, 'STRIKE THREE, YOU'RE OUT.'"
"Betty, my roommate, and I came up with the idea to redecorate our room. We painted, wallpapered, and moved everything around. When IT WAS FINALLY COMPLETED, we were very pleased with the results, and everyone who saw it complimented us on how well done it was."
"My brother, teenage sister, and cousin announced that they were going to climb this nearby mountain. They all came back later and said that it had been hard going but THEY HAD FINALLY MADE IT TO THE TOP."

Coding for Consequences of Success and Failure
Sometimes after achieving a success or failure, something else will occur which will change the outcome for a character. Fate, or some other character, may step in to alter what a character has just achieved. The character himself may push his efforts harder which again may result in a reversal of the previous outcome. To handle such situations, three subclasses of consequences which may modify the original outcome are coded for each of the achievement outcomes. These consequences are represented by placing the coding symbols for them in parentheses after the coding that appears for the achievement outcome unit. Since these consequences are classifications that appear in other sections, these codes also appear separately and independently of their consequence status. The rationale for coding such consequences is that of preserving the sequence of dream events in order to answer certain dynamic questions which might be raised. Such questions might take the form of "How often does a character succeed only to have his efforts nullified by the environment?" or "In what percentage of failures does some other character intervene and attempt to help the failing character?" It should be noted that many researchers using the Hall/Van de Castle scoring system do not bother to record consequences of success and failure, since they occur so rarely; also, they can make a bit of a mess of your scoring sheets!

Consequences of Success

1. A character achieves success but it is nullified by a misfortune. The coding symbol for misfortunes is M; they are discussed in the next page, which covers environmental misfortunes and good fortunes.

"I had worked very hard to make the cheerleading squad. After finally receiving word that I had made it, I BROKE MY LEG AND COULDN'T BE A CHEERLEADER."
SU,D (M)

2. A character achieves success but subsequently overextends himself and failure occurs.

"I was making a great deal of money by skillful maneuvering on the stock market. Then I began to speculate and LOST ALL MY MONEY."

3. Another character intervenes in an aggressive fashion and intentionally nullifies the success.

"My brother and I had been struggling to build this fancy model house out of wooden match sticks. After we finally glued the last one in place, my 11-year-old brother came along and INTENTIONALLY DROPPED A BRICK ON IT WHICH DEMOLISHED IT."
SU, D+1MBA (A)

Consequences of Failure 1. A failure is reversed by a good fortune. The coding symbol for good fortune is GF. This class of events is discussed in the following page on environmental press.

"I was really sweating over a chemistry problem and couldn't come up with the answer when, as if by magic, THE ANSWER APPEARED WRITTEN DOWN ON THE PAPER. I could hardly believe what I saw."

2. A failure is overcome when the character through unusual effort or new approach manages to succeed.

"My father kept trying to get a job but was always getting turned down. In desperation, he ran a newspaper ad and MANAGED TO GET ONE AT LAST."

3. A failure is overcome through the friendly intervention of another character.

"My teenage brother had his car apart and couldn't get it together. I GAVE HIM A DIAGRAM OF THE ENGINE and then he was able to complete the job."
FL, 1MBT (F)

The Classification and Coding of Misfortune and Good Fortune

Good Fortune
Coding Procedures for Misfortune and Good Fortune

Coding Rules

Coding the Consequences of Misfortune and Good Fortune

Consequences of Misfortune
Consequences of Good Fortune

In the preceding three sections emphasis has been placed upon the various interactions and activities of the characters. They may fight, dance, make love, converse, walk around, look, listen, or struggle to accomplish something. All of these acts involve some deliberate, voluntary choice on the part of the character engaging in them. As the result of these acts, characters may be killed, hurt, or defeated, or they may become engaged, popular, or prosperous. These bad and good outcomes are, therefore, the consequences of what the characters have done or attempted to do.

It sometimes happens that bad or good outcomes occur to a character independent of anything he or she may have done. Fate, in a sense, has stepped in and produced certain results over which no character has any control. We have labeled these impersonal "fatalistic" events as misfortunes, where bad things happen to a character, and good fortunes, where good things happen to a character.

We shall first deal with misfortune (Scoring symbol: M). A misfortune is any mishap, adversity, harm, danger, or threat which happens to characters as a result of circumstances over which they have no control; it happens to them through no fault of their own. A misfortune differs from the consequence of an aggressive act, since in an aggression there is an intent by one character to harm another character. There is no such intent in a misfortune. A misfortune also differs from a failure, as was pointed out in the last chapter. In a misfortune a person is not trying to do anything; rather, something "bad" happens "out of the blue." The six subclasses of misfortune are listed below.

M6: A character is dead or dies as a result of accident or illness or some unknown cause. Death because of murder is categorically excluded because it is coded as an aggression. "I went up to the coffins and opened them. Lying in one box was my mother, in the other my sister, and in the third my brother. They all appeared TO BE DEAD." "I was attending my FATHER'S FUNERAL."

M5: A character is injured or ill. This class includes pain, operations, any bodily or mental defects, insanity, amnesia, blindness, etc. Plastic surgery is not counted as an "operation" because it is elective surgery.

"Her baby boy had a serious congenital HEART DEFECT."
"My mother LOST HER MEMORY."
"A TOOTH BROKE OFF in my mouth."
"He had a CLUB FOOT."
"My boyfriend had a STOMACHACHE."

M4: A character is involved in an accident without suffering physical or mental injury; a character loses a possession or has one destroyed or damaged; a character has a defective possession. "As I was driving down the mountain, my car CRASHED BECAUSE OF THE ICY ROAD."
"The DIAMOND CAME OUT of my engagement ring."
"The LIGHTNING DAMAGED our house."
"My boyfriend's car had a FLAT TIRE."

M3: A character is threatened by something in the environment. A threat of falling is classified under the next heading.
"The wall began to crack and bulge out and I thought it was GOING TO FALL ON ME."
"The waves were very high and I was afraid the boat we were in WAS GOING TO CAPSIZE."

M2: A character is falling or is in danger of falling.
"I dreamed that I WAS FALLING AND FALLING and never hit bottom."
"As I stood on the edge of the cliff, the rocks began to move and I WAS AFRAID I MIGHT FALL."

M1: A character encounters an environmental barrier or obstacle: a character is unable to move: a character is lost; a character is late or is in danger of being late. This class of misfortunes includes situations which produce frustration for the character who confronts them. In some cases, the frustrating agent is clearly environmental in origin as when a road is washed out; in other cases, where the character is lost or late, it is possible that the character has made a contribution to the difficulty he or she encounters. However, since the character has not consciously or intentionally produced the difficulty and views the problem as external to himself or herself, it seems more appropriate to treat it as a misfortune that bears upon the character, rather than as a failure in achievement or as an intropunitive aggression. Having encountered the obstacle which warrants the M1 coding, it is possible for success or failure to be coded if the character makes an effort to overcome the barrier and the outcome is described in the dream report.
"When we reached the river, we discovered that the BRIDGE HAD COLLAPSED so we couldn't get to the picnic grounds."
"As the truck bore down on me, I tried to run but found that MY LEGS WOULDN'T MOVE."
"I started toward home but the streets became more and more unfamiliar until I finally realized that I WAS LOST."
"As I entered the office, I saw that I WAS LATE FOR WORK."

Good Fortune
Good fortune is the opposite of misfortune. A misfortune is coded when "something bad" happens to a character; a good fortune is coded when "something good" happens to a character. The "something good" is not the result of an intentional beneficial act by another character. That would be coded as friendliness. Neither is the "something good" the result of any purposeful striving by the character. That would be coded as success. A good fortune is coded when there is an acquisition of goods or something beneficial happens to a character that is completely adventitious or the result of a circumstance over which no one has control. A good fortune is also coded if the dreamer is in a bountiful environment. In a word, it might be said that a good fortune is coded whenever a character becomes "lucky." Good fortunes are rather rare in dreams. As the result of their paucity, we have not attempted to subclassify them and code for only one class of good fortune. The coding symbol is GF.


"My girl friend WON ONE OF THE DOOR PRIZES."

"I was out hunting when a LARGE HERD OF DEER JUST SEEMED TO APPEAR from out of nowhere."


Coding Procedures for Misfortune and Good Fortune
The coding procedure is essentially the same as that followed for success and failure. A comma is placed after the coding symbol for the misfortune or good fortune, and then the coding symbols for the characters are shown. Multiple characters are joined by a plus sign.

"I LOST MY WATCH over the side of the boat."
"My buddy and I FOUND A BRAND NEW BOAT that had drifted up on the beach."
"My teenage brother and my new baby sister both CAME DOWN WITH THE MUMPS."

Coding Rules 1. Score each misfortune that happens to the same character when the misfortunes belong to different subclasses.

"My brother's car WAS WRECKED and HE GOT CUTS ON HIS FACE and broke his arm in the accident."

2. Score each misfortune or good fortune—even those that belong to the same subclass of misfortune—if they happen to the same character at different times in the dream.

"I was hungry and began to scratch my nose. All of a sudden A STEAK SUPPER APPEARED in front of me. I ate this and after awhile I scratched my nose again. Suddenly I WAS DRESSED IN THE FINEST OF CLOTHES. I began to wonder if my nose were magic."
"I was skiing when I ran into a tree and CUT MY LIP. I went back to the lodge and put a Band-Aid on it. Then I started out again. This time I SPRAINED MY ANKLE when one of my skis came off."

Coding the Consequences of Misfortune and Good Fortune
In the last section, it was indicated that consequences can occur which would modify the initial achievement outcomes. In a similar fashion, the coding system for misfortune and good fortune includes provisions for consequences which alter the initial fate bestowed on a character. Three subclasses of consequences have been developed. These consequences are either a form of social interaction, an achievement outcome, or the opposite type of fatalistic event. They are also coded independently of their coding as a consequence. Their coding as a consequence is indicated by enclosing the relevant coding symbol in parentheses following the coding unit. The purpose of coding as a consequence is to preserve the sequence of events in order to answer certain dynamic questions which might be raised. Such questions might ask, "How often does a character struggle to overcome a misfortune and succeed?" or "In what percentage of good fortunes does fate intervene and turn an initial blessing into some misfortune?"

It should be noted that many researchers using the Hall/Van de Castle scoring system do not bother to record consequences of success and failure, since they occur so rarely; also, they can make a bit of a mess of your scoring sheets!

Consequences of Misfortune

1. The misfortune is transformed into a good fortune.

"My mother was very sick but ALL OF A SUDDEN SHE APPEARED WELL AND HEALTHY."

2. The character suffering the misfortune tries to cope with the misfortune and succeeds.

"The door was locked and wouldn't open. After trying several times, I finally used a bent hairpin and MANAGED TO GET IT OPEN."
M1,D (SU)

3. Another character intervenes in a friendly fashion and dispels the misfortune.

"I was hopelessly lost in the woods and wandering around in circles. Suddenly a man I had never seen before appeared and SHOWED ME THE WAY OUT OF THE WOODS."
M1, D (F)

Consequences of Good Fortune 1. The good fortune is transformed into a misfortune.

"I found a lot of money but on my way home IT DISAPPEARED."
GF,D (M)
2. The character to whom the good fortune occurs tries to press his or her luck and fails.
"I dreamed I had found a lot of money. I invested it in order to make more money but THEN I LOST IT ALL."

3. Another character intervenes in an aggressive fashion and intentionally destroys the good fortune.

"My teenage sister found this real cute puppy but my father said SHE COULDN'T KEEP IT."
GF, 1FTT (A)

The Classification and Coding of Emotions

Classes of Emotions


Coding Procedures
Additional Coding Rules

The classification of emotions was one of our most difficult tasks. The problem of reducing the hundreds of words in the English language that represent affective states to a fairly small number of classes that seemed to be fairly comprehensive, yet discrete in coverage, was a formidable one. Another stumbling block involved the question of extensity of coding, e.g., should we try to classify the types of situations that caused the emotion as well as consequences following the emotion? After experimenting with a large number of coding schemes, we eventually arrived at the answer to this question and several others by limiting our emotional states to five in number and simply indicating which characters experienced these emotions.

When coders go over dream reports the are generally surprised at how few emotions are actually reported, unless the dreamer is specifically and strongly urged to state what emotions are being experienced during the dream. Situations that would undoubtedly be terrifying or depressing for the average individual may be reported in some detail, but a description of their emotional impact upon the dreamer is often curiously lacking.

Classes of Emotions

(Coding symbol: AN.) This class of emotions is generally easy to identify. Representative of some of the terms coded under anger are: annoyed, irritated, mad, provoked, furious, enraged, belligerent, incensed, and indignant. As with the following emotional classes, all degrees of intensity are included within each class, and no coding distinction is made between weak expressions of anger such as being peeved or strong expressions such as being infuriated. Apprehension (Coding symbol: AP.) The emotions included in this class can be considered related to fear, anxiety, guilt, and embarrassment. Although differences are recognizable among them, all these conditions lead to conscious concern on the part of the person experiencing them. The person feels apprehensive about the possibility of physical injury or punishment, or the possibility of social ridicule or rejection. Thus the common denominator underlying these emotions is that the person is uncomfortable because the threat of some potential danger exists . The following terms, which are not meant to be all inclusive, refer to various degrees of apprehension: terrified, horrified, frightened, scared, worried, nervous, concerned, panicky, alarmed, uneasy, upset, remorseful, sorry, apologetic, regretful, and ashamed.

(Coding symbol: SD.) All the words that describe an unhappy emotional state are coded in the sadness class. References to physical pain or physical distress are not included in any of the emotional classes. Some examples of terms that would be coded as sadness are: disappointed, distressed, hurt, depressed, lonely, lost, miserable, hopeless, crushed, and heartbroken.

(Coding symbol: CO.) Although it may be debatable as to whether confusion is a condition possessing the same degree of autonomic involvement as the preceding emotions, we have chosen to place it in the classification of emotions. It is true that confusion resides more in the head as a state of cognitive ambiguity than it does in the viscera as a gut-type reaction. However, the feeling state accompanying uncertainty may begin to shade toward a type of free-floating anxiety, toward frustration, or toward depression. Since confusion is therefore "emotionlike," and also because it is reported fairly frequently in dreams, mention of it seems to belong most appropriately in the classification of emotions. Confusion is generally produced either through confrontation with some unexpected event or else through inability to choose between available alternatives. Some words that may indicate confusion are: surprised, astonished, amazed, awestruck, mystified, puzzled, perplexed, strange, bewildered, doubtful, conflicted, undecided, and uncertain.

(Coding symbol: HA.) All the words that describe a general state of pleasant feeling tone are included in this class. Some of the terms that would be coded as happiness are: contented, pleased, relieved, amused, cheerful, glad, relaxed, gratified, gay, wonderful, elated, joyful, and exhilarated.

Coding Procedures
Since emotions are often not described, the coder may be tempted to infer emotions on the basis of the physical surroundings or activities mentioned in the dream report. This temptation should be resisted. If a dreamer says that he or she was in a torture chamber or being chased, the coder should not assume that apprehension was being experienced unless the dreamer says that such an emotion was being experienced. We make only one exception to this. If the dreamer describes definite autonomic activity accompanying an event, and it is clear from the combination of context and the autonomic description that the dreamer was experiencing an emotion that could be clearly classified as one of the five scorable emotions, we will code an emotion. For example, if the dreamer says, "Tears began running down my face when I received word of my mother's death," we would code an SD for that description. We would code AP if the dreamer said, "As the monster approached, I began to sweat and tremble and tried to cry out but no sound would come." The above situations appear infrequently, however, and restraint is urged as the general rule in attributing any emotion to a character unless the dream report provides ample material to do so.

The coder should not attempt to automatically assign an emotion on the basis of its listing in the preceding groups. In some cases, the same word may take on quite different meanings in different contexts. For example, the statement "I was shocked" might possibly indicate any one of the five emotional classes, depending upon how the dreamer goes on to describe his reaction. The coding procedure followed in the last two sections is also employed for emotions. A comma is placed after the coding symbol for the emotion and then the coding symbols for the characters are presented. As usual, multiple characters are joined by plus signs.

"I became FURIOUS when I saw my boyfriend holding this girl's hand."
"Suddenly, I realized that I was walking down the street with no clothes on. I became terribly EMBARRASSED."
"My buddy and I were OVERJOYED when we finally found the treasure."
"My sister was very DISAPPOINTED when she didn't get the job."
"My aunt and uncle were SURPRISED to see this half-dog and half-cat creature walk across the floor."

Additional Coding Rules 1. If the terms used to describe a reaction to a particular event all belong to the same class, that class of emotions is only coded once for that event.

"I was so PLEASED and happy to hear the news."

2. The same class of emotion may be coded more than once if it appears as a reaction to different events.

"I was MAD at my wife for not fixing coffee. Then I got MAD at the bus driver because he wouldn't give me change for a ten-dollar bill. When I arrived at work, I became MAD at my boss because he asked me to do someone else's work besides my own."

3. If more than one class of emotion is described as a reaction to the same event, each class is coded separately.

"I was SAD when I saw the damage to the roof but was GLAD that the rest of the house had not been damaged."

The Classification and Coding of Settings


No Setting



Coding Procedures

Determining the Number of Settings
Summary of Coding Symbols

The characters in a dream report do not act, interact, emote, strive, and meet their fate in a vacuum. The dream report usually contains physical surroundings which are divided into two very general categories in the Hall/Van de Castle system: settings and objects. Generally speaking, settings and objects have not been quite as interesting as some of the categories that already have been presented, but they sometimes have their uses.

Almost all dream reports include some form of recognizable setting, and dreamers frequently begin their report by saying something about the setting. In the same way that there are often several acts and scenes to a play, so, too, is it common for the setting to change during the course of a dream narrative, sometimes quite abruptly.

Establishing the categories for settings was the most difficult aspect of the entire coding system. The initial efforts to classify settings included a rather extensive number of possible settings. However, it was impossible to obtain adequate intercoder reliability when such a large number were involved, so we eventually collapsed all settings into two broad groupings: indoor and outdoor settings.

Indoor settings consist of those in which the dreamer is within a building. The building may be a house, hotel, church, factory, barracks, or some other structure. Any room such as a living room, cellar, or attic is therefore an indoor setting, as are offices, elevators, hallways, stairs, or other regions within buildings. Also considered indoor settings are those areas attached to or part of the exterior of a building. Examples of the latter which would be coded as indoor settings are instances where the dreamer is located on a porch, roof, fire escape, or ledge of a building. Open-air buildings such as amphitheaters or stadiums are also coded as indoor settings. The coding symbol for indoor settings is I.

Outdoor settings are those where the dreamer is described as being out-of-doors or outside a building. Settings occurring in nature, such as when the dreamer is at the beach, in the woods, or on a mountain, are included, as well as urban settings, such as streets, sidewalks, yards, parking lots, and cemeteries. The setting is considered an outside one if the dreamer is in a car, train, boat or airplane, unless the car is in a garage or the airplane is in a hangar. Being in a tunnel or cave is coded as an outdoor setting. The coding symbol for outdoor settings is O.

The decision as to whether a setting should be coded I or O is generally not a difficult one, and a high level of coding agreement can be readily achieved for the distinction between them.

In a few cases, it appears that a setting is definitely present, but it cannot be determined whether it should be coded I or O because the dreamer has not supplied sufficient information. For instance, he might say, "We went to the country club," and it is not clear whether the dreamer is referring to some sort of building or whether he means the golf course, tennis area, or swimming pool. We handle these infrequent cases by coding such settings as ambiguous and indicate this by the coding symbol A.

An even more infrequent situation is the one in which no setting is described. Short dreams or those which seem to be only some fragment of a longer dream are the ones most likely not to contain any setting. These dreams are coded with the symbol NS, which stands for no setting. The presence of any object or description of any surroundings, no matter how vague, is sufficient to warrant some type of setting code, other than NS.

Having determined the locale of the dream, the next phase of coding settings involves determining the degree of familiarity that the dreamer reports for the setting. Five levels of familiarity are distinguished in our coding system.

Familiar settings (coding symbol: F) are those in which it appears quite clear that the dreamer recognizes the setting as being a personally familiar one, such as his own or a friend's home, place of employment, or worship. If the setting is a well-known or famous one which the dreamer can identify, such as the Empire State Building, Mt. Everest, or Arlington Cemetery, it is coded as being a familiar setting, even though the dreamer may never have been there. Thus, if the dreamer is able specifically to identify a setting or indicates that he has prior acquaintance with it, an F code is given.

Distorted settings (coding symbol: D) are familiar settings which the dreamer indicates involve an element of peculiarity or incongruity because they differ in some respect from the way the dreamer knows the setting to be in waking life. Coding is fairly liberal for this category so that a setting containing any distortion, even of a minor nature, is coded D. The distortion, however, must involve the physical surroundings rather than the appearance of any character. The D code takes precedence over any other setting code.

Geographical settings (coding symbol: G) are those in which the dreamer identifies the settings according to their geographical location, such as Europe, Illinois, or San Francisco. If the dreamer also indicates that the setting is a personally familiar one, the F coding is given precedence over the G coding.

Unfamiliar settings (coding symbol: U) are those which are not known to the dreamer. Sometimes the dreamer will be very explicit and state that the setting is a place he has never seen or visited before, or sometimes the adjective "strange" will be used to indicate that the setting is not recognized as a familiar one. In other instances, the vague description of the setting will often reveal the lack of familiarity. Statements showing this vague quality are: "I was in some house," "I was driving down the street of a large city," "We went to what looked like a hotel," "The furniture suggested this was a kitchen where we were talking." If the coder can answer yes to the question, "Does the description of the setting strongly suggest that the dreamer has not actually been in this setting in his waking life," the setting is coded U. It should be kept in mind that the coding will not always be U if the dreamer has never been in the setting in waking life for if the setting is a famous one it is coded F, if it is referred to as some specific geographical location it is coded G, and if there is something incongruous about the arrangement of the setting it is coded D.

Questionable settings (coding symbol: Q) are coded when it cannot be determined whether the setting is a familiar or unfamiliar one. The description provided in the dream report is often insufficient to establish the familiarity or unfamiliarity of a setting with any degree of assurance, so Q is a frequently employed code.

Coding Procedures Coding settings is generally fairly easy. Deciding whether a setting should be coded U or Q and determining the total number of settings are the coding problems which pose the greatest difficulty. In order to illustrate the various combinations of codes which may occur, a list of examples is provided below.

IF "I was in MY ROOM getting dressed."
IG "I looked out the hotel window and saw NEW YORK CITY below."
IU "We were in what seemed to be A CELLAR."
IQ "I was IN A STORE buying a pair of shoes."
OF "I was yelling from OUR NEIGHBOR'S DRIVEWAY."
OG "We were swimming AT SOME HAWAIIAN BEACH."
OU "The path THROUGH THESE UNFAMILIAR LOOKING WOODS was a very crooked one."
OQ "THE FOOTBALL FIELD we were playing on was muddy."
AF "THE VIEW OF THE EIFFEL TOWER was magnificent."
AG "I was back SOMEWHERE IN VERMONT again."
AQ "I was sitting ON TOP OF A FLAG POLE."
NS "All I could see was this old lady who kept scowling at me. That was the whole dream."

Determining the Number of Settings
The rules for determining the number of settings are given below along with coding examples. Consistent with the format that appears throughout these pages, items to be coded will appear in capital letters while items which may seem relevant, but which should not be coded, are italicized.

1. In order for a setting to be coded, the dreamer must appear as an observer in the setting. Do not code settings in which other characters are located unless the dreamer appears as an observer in the same place.
"I was walking through what I thought were THE STREETS OF NEW ORLEANS (OG)."

"He said that he and my other fraternity brothers had gone for a drive through the streets of New Orleans."

2. All changes in location within a single building are coded as a single indoor setting. Changes in location from one building to a different building are coded as separate indoor settings.
"I stopped IN THE TODDLE HOUSE (IF) for a cup of coffee and then went to A BEAUTY PARLOR (IQ) to get my hair done."

"We hunted for it IN THE ATTIC (IQ) then went downstairs and continued the search in the rooms on the second floor and finally wound up looking in the cellar but without any success."
3. If any type of codeable intervening setting occurs, the same indoor location may be coded more than once.
"We quickly packed a lunch AT DOROTHY'S HOUSE (IF), then drove for a while IN THE COUNTRY (OQ) and returned to DOROTHY'S HOUSE (IF) and listened to records."

"I left the LIVING ROOM OF THIS OLD GLOOMY HOUSE (IU), walked THROUGH THE STRANGE GARDEN OUTSIDE (OU), and then for some reason returned again to THE HOUSE (IU) and walked through the back door."

4. Outdoor settings are coded separately if they involve clearly differentiated and separate regions. If the dreamer is describing different areas of a larger region, a single overall outdoor setting is coded.
"We attended the burial at THE CATHOLIC CEMETERY (OF) then drove off to SOME NEARBY SMALL TOWN (OQ) to talk."

"As I was walking THROUGH SOME FOREST (OU) I came across a group of pine trees, then I walked through a grove of aspen and further on through a small stand of junipers."

5. If any type of codeable intervening setting occurs, the same outdoor location may be coded more than once.

"We were surfing at SOME BEACH THAT I COULDN'T RECOGNIZE (OU) when the scene shifted to some STRANGE ROOM THAT HAD PAINTINGS ALL OVER THE WALLS (IU), and then I was back surfing at the SAME BEACH (OU) again."

6. In order for an additional setting to be coded, some action should take place within the new setting or the dreamer must describe himself as actually being located in the new setting.


"AFTER WALKING IN THE RAIN (OQ) for what seemed a long time, I arrived at my friend's home."

Summary of Coding Symbols for Settings
I indoor
F familiar

The Classification and Coding of Objects

Classes of Objects

Body Parts

Coding Rules

The characters in a dream report do not act, interact, emote, strive, and meet their fate in a vacuum. The dream report usually contains physical surroundings which are divided into two very general categories in the Hall/Van de Castle system: settings and objects. Generally speaking, settings and objects have not been quite as interesting as some of the categories that already have been presented, but they sometimes have their uses.

Almost all dream reports include some form of recognizable setting, and dreamers frequently begin their report by saying something about the setting. In the same way that there are often several acts and scenes to a play, so, too, is it common for the setting to change during the course of a dream narrative, sometimes quite abruptly.

Classes of Objects

Architecture refers to buildings or structures and their component parts. Seven different subclasses of architecture are coded. The first letter of the coding symbol for architecture is A which is followed by a second letter to indicate the subclass. The first four subclasses deal with entire buildings or units within buildings while the next two deal with small component parts of buildings. Any architectural object not included in these six categories is coded in the miscellaneous subclass.

Residential (coding symbol: AR). This subclass is composed of all buildings and units of buildings (rooms) that are used for residential purposes. It includes house, mansion, castle, palace, cabin, shack, hut, tent, and other type of private dwelling place. It also includes apartment house, dormitory, hotel, motel, inn, and other types of multiple dwelling places in which people reside temporarily or permanently. In addition to obvious residential rooms such as bedrooms and living rooms, AR also includes hallways and stairways as well as levels within a residential building such as the second floor, downstairs, and basement.

Vocational (coding symbol: AV). This subclass includes buildings and rooms in buildings devoted mainly to business transactions, manufacturing, employment, or education. What such buildings share in common is that they are primarily concerned with work or vocational activities. Included is any type of store, factory, and office. Classroom buildings and classrooms are also coded as vocational because of their implied work emphasis; other educational buildings such as school dormitories, cafeterias, and chapels are classified under other headings. Banks are included in the money class. Home workshops and study rooms are not included here; they are coded AR.

Entertainment (coding symbol: AE). This subclass covers buildings and rooms that are used for recreation, entertainment, sports, or other pleasurable activities. Included are restaurant, cafeteria, diner, bar, nightclub, casino, dance hall, theater, museum, art gallery, bowling alley, stadium, gymnasium, and indoor swimming pool. Recreation or hobby rooms in a home are not included in this subclass; they are coded AR.

Institutional (coding symbol: AI). This subclass is composed of buildings or units within them that society maintains for collective action in dealing with social or governmental problems. Such buildings are therefore generally supported by taxes or subscription. Included are hospital, infirmary, jail, penitentiary, court house, government building, military building, and church, as well as the units within them such as surgery room, cell, court room, tax collector's office, and choir loft.

Details (coding symbol: AD). This subclass consists of all parts of a room or smaller units of a building not usually regarded as separate rooms. Included are door, window, wall, ceiling, fireplace, aisle, steps, and floor. In the last example, floor refers to the walked-on surface of a room, not to a level within a building. It does not matter what type of building is involved; a house door, restaurant door, or church door are all coded as AD. In addition to internal components, architectural details also include those structures viewed from outside a building such as roof, chimney, spire, belfry, ledge, balcony, railing, fire escape, shutters, arch, and column.

Building Materials (coding symbol: AB). Included in this subclass are those objects used to construct buildings such as boards, lumber, bricks, concrete blocks, and cement. Miscellaneous (coding symbol: AM). Any building or part of a building which cannot be classified within the preceding architectural groupings would be included here. Some examples are tower, dam, and fountain.

(Coding symbol: HH.) Contained within this class are all objects frequently encountered in a household setting. Included are furniture such as table, chair, and bed; appliances such as stove, refrigerator, and vacuum cleaner; furnishings such as rug, drapes, and lamp; and supplies such as sheet, light bulb, and soap. Silverware, dinner ware, and cooking utensils are coded HH. Examples of other objects coded HH are broom, clock, scissors, needle, safety pin, thermometer, medicines, cosmetics, bottle, mirror, faucet, rope, garbage can, and hose. Office furniture and furnishings are also considered HH.

(Coding symbol: FO.) Both food and drink are coded in this class. Included are all forms of food or drink whether on the shelf of a store, in a refrigerator, in a container, on a plate, or on the table. It does not include food that is growing. Growing food is coded in the nature class. It does include general terms such as groceries, drinks, and things to eat, but not a reference to a meal or to eating without any specification as to what the meal consisted of or what was eaten. Grocery store and meat market are coded as AV, restaurant and cafeteria are coded as AE, dining room as AR, and dining room table as HH.

Three subclasses of implements are coded. The first letter of the coding symbol for implements is I to which a second letter is attached to indicate the subclass.

Tools (coding symbol: IT). This subclass includes tools, machinery, and machinery parts. Objects that are used in vocational activities are generally included here, although some such as typewriter are coded in the communication class. Examples of the IT subclass are hammer, nail, saw, screwdriver, wrench, pliers, shovel, rake, lawn mower, lathe, X-ray machine, jack, lever, and starting button of a machine. Household appliances are coded in the household class and parts of conveyances are coded in the travel class.

Weapons (coding symbol: IW). This subclass consists of such weapons as gun, club, sword, grenade, missiles, or bomb. Tanks and bombers are coded here rather than in the travel class.

Recreation (coding symbol: IR). This subclass incorporates sporting goods such as baseball bat, tennis racquet, balls, ice skates, and fishing pole; objects used in playing games such as cards, checkers, and dice; and toys such as dolls, miniature trucks, and blocks. This subclass also includes musical instruments.

(Coding symbol: TR.) Encompassed within this class are all forms of conveyance such as car, truck, bus, streetcar, subway, train, boat, airplane, bicycle, elevator, and escalator. Parts of a conveyance such as wheel, brakes, motor, windshield, and propeller are also included. In addition, objects associated with travel such as bus depot, train station, airport, license plate, passenger ticket, and luggage are coded TR.

(Coding symbol: ST.) Covered within this class are all types of roadways by which a person can go from one place to another. Included are street, highway, road, path, trail, alley, sidewalk, driveway, intersection, bridge, and train tracks.

(Coding symbol: RG.) This class primarily takes in all land areas that are limited by some form of boundaries. It includes city, village, block, square, parking lot, yard, park, playing field, lot, cemetery, farm, college campus, and military camp. Also considered as regions are water areas whose boundaries have been established by man, such as outdoor swimming pools and reservoirs.

(Coding symbol: NA.) This class consists of all outdoor objects that exist in nature. Included are all forms of plant life such as tree, flower, and grass; terrain such as mountain, plateau, cliff, cave, valley, field, meadow, swamp, and forest; natural bodies of water such as ocean, lake, pond, river, and waterfall; weather elements such as rain, snow, hail, and ice; heavenly bodies such as sun, moon, star, and planet; earth and its mineral products such as ground, soil, dirt, clay, mud, sand, pebbles, rocks, iron ore, gold ore, crude diamonds, rubies, or other gems. Growing fruits or vegetables are NA, but fruits or vegetables prepared for eating are FO. Similarly, water or ice as it appears in nature is NA, but a glass of water intended for drinking is coded FO.

Body Parts
Both human and animal parts are included under this heading. Five subclasses of body parts are coded. The first letter of the coding symbol is B which is followed by a second letter to indicate the subclass.

Head (coding symbol: BH). This subclass is composed of all visible body parts in the head region. It includes head, neck, throat, face, hair, horns, eyes, beak, nose, mouth, lips, tongue, real and false teeth, jaw, ears, and beard.

Extremities (coding symbol: BE). All extremities of the body such as leg, arm, tail, and fin as well as parts of extremities such as finger, hand, elbow, toe, foot, knee, and claw are included in this subclass.

Torso (coding symbol: BT). All visible parts of the torso such as shoulders, chest, abdomen, hips, side, and back are included in this subclass. Terms such as body, build, and physique are also coded BT.

Anatomy (coding symbol: BA). This subclass contains internal body parts, both bony and visceral, and includes such parts as skull, ribs, leg bone, tonsils, heart, lungs, and intestines. Terms such as insides or guts are coded BA. Also included are body secretions such as blood, perspiration, saliva, and pus. Note should be made of the following grouping, BS, before coding something as BA.

Sex (coding symbol: BS). This subclass embraces all body parts and organs related to reproduction and excretion such as penis, testicles, vagina, clitoris, uterus, pelvis, pubic hair, breasts, nipples, buttocks, and anus. Also included are secretions or products from these organs such as semen, menstrual blood, urine, and feces. Embryo and fetus are coded BS.

(Coding symbol: CL.) Covered within this class are clothing and parts of clothing. Included are outer garments, underwear, headgear, and footwear, as well as such items as pocket, collar, and button. Accessories that are carried or worn by a person such as handbag, cane, wristwatch, and eyeglasses, and jewelry such as ring, necklace, and ornamental pin are coded CL.

(Coding symbol: CM.) This class is composed of all forms of visual, auditory, and written communications and the means for transmitting them. Included are TV set, movie, photograph, drawing, painting, picture, sculpture, telephone, radio, tape recorder, phonograph, book, magazine, newspaper, letter, telegram, postcard, advertisement, map, and test. Objects used to produce communications such as camera, film, microphone, typewriter, pen, pencil, and paper are also coded CM.

(Coding symbol: MO.) This class incorporates money and objects closely associated with money. Included is any type of money in the form of currency and coins; objects that can easily be exchanged for money such as checks, gambling chips, and subway tokens; negotiable objects such as stocks and bonds; records referring to monetary values such as check stubs, bills, receipts, and price tags, and containers for money such as piggy banks, wallets, and change purses. Unless a purse is mentioned as a coin or change purse, it is coded CL because a purse is considered a stylistic accessory that is a receptacle for a wide variety of objects beside money. Bank buildings are coded MO.

(Coding symbol: MS.) An object that cannot be included in any of the preceding classes is coded as MS.

Coding Rules
Some objects raise problems as to whether they should be coded in one class or another. Their placement must be decided on the basis of context, usage of the object, and the manner in which it is described. For example, a knife can be used as an aggressive implement (IW) or as cutlery (HH). A key may open a home (HH) or it may start a car (TR). To use rags for household cleaning (HH) is quite different from wearing them for clothing (CL). Thus, objects such as knives, keys, and rags cannot be mechanically assigned to the household class in every instance.

1. Each object is to be assigned to only one class. A knife, for example, cannot be both a household object (HH) and a weapon (IW).

"My mother said to put the KNIVES (HH) and FORKS (HH) on the TABLE (HH)."

"He kept coming after me with a KNIFE (IW) in his HAND (BE)."
2. Any object that is mentioned in the dream is coded. An object need not be physically present to be coded.

"I was planning to buy a CAR (TR)."
"We were reading about how they made CHEESE (FO)."

3. If the same object is mentioned several times in a dream, it is only coded once. If two or more similar but distinctly different objects of the same type are mentioned, each is coded.
"I looked at the NECKLACE (CL), passed it along to Jim, and he handed the necklace to Walt."

"There was a red BOOK (CM), a blue BOOK (CM), and a yellow BOOK (CM) lying on the FLOOR (AD)."
4. If an object is a part or subunit of a larger unit, each of the subunits as well as the larger unit is coded.

"His NOSE (BH) was very large for his FACE (BH)."

"The LIVING ROOM (AR) of this HOUSE (AR) was all decorated in blue."

"The DOOR (AD) to the LIVING ROOM (AR) was made of oak."

5. An object is not coded if it is referred to in a generic sense, or if the dreamer mentions an object in order to exclude it.

"I told her that I was eager to finish school."

"I got cold feet and couldn't go through with it."

"He said it was not a flower but a TREE (NA)."

The Classification and Coding of Descriptive Elements



Temporal Scale
Negative Scale

The preceding sections contained information about coding the physical surroundings in which the dream takes place, the characters in the dream, the various activities they engage in, what uncontrollable events befall the characters, and how they felt about what happened to them. In addition to noting that objects and people appeared in a dream and that certain events took place, dreamers may also describe some attributes and qualities of objects, people, actions, and emotional states. They say it was "a red car," "a large house," "an old lady," "a crowded church," "a cold day," "a crooked stick," "an intense fear," or "an ugly dog." In dream reports, a person may be characterized as "running rapidly," "working very hard," or "dancing beautifully." Dreamers may also note the passage of time—"we seemed to be riding for about an hour"—or refer to a particular time—"it was midnight." They may also describe things, people, and happenings not in terms of what they were but in terms of what they were not: "It was not my mother." We call all of these descriptive elements.

In coding descriptive elements, three different scales are involved: the modifier scale, the temporal scale, and the negative scale. Each of these will be discussed below and illustrated by coding examples.

NOTE: The categories and scales to be presented in this section—especially the temporal and negative scales—have not been routinely used in most studies. They are to be used by highly committed investigators, or to test very specific hypothesis, or when there seems to be a striking occurrence of an element that fits into one of these descriptive categories.

A modifier is any adjective, adverb, or phrase that is used for descriptive elaboration. Since any object can be classified with regard to an extremely large number of attributes, the number of modifier classes could be a large one. We have limited the number of classes to nine. These nine represent those upon which satisfactory reliability could be obtained and for which psychological significance probably exists. Each of the nine classes can be considered to represent bipolar qualities, and each class of modifiers is therefore coded with a plus or minus sign to indicate which pole of the modifier is represented.

(Coding symbol: C.) Any mention of color or a color name is coded unless the term is used to describe an emotional state. Chromatic colors are coded C+ and achromatic colors (black, white, and gray) are coded C-. The same color can be coded more than once if it refers to separate things. In the following examples, the reader is reminded that italics represent nonscorable elements.

"She was wearing a BLACK (C-) and YELLOW (C+) striped dress and was carrying a BLACK (C-) purse."

"The rainbow contained a great many COLORS (C+)."

"The WHITE-haired (C-) gentleman rose when I entered the room."

"Her cheeks turned RED (C+) with embarrassment."

"It was a dark night."

"I felt sad and blue."

"I called him a yellow coward."

"She blushed as the cheap silver utensils were put on the table."

"The dark-haired stranger was with a blond woman."

(Coding symbol: S.) This class contains all references to the largeness or smallness of things. Descriptive terms indicating a large size such as big, huge, thick, tall, high, broad, and deep are coded S+. The antonyms of these terms such as small, tiny, thin, short, low, narrow, and shallow are coded S-. The concept of size is ordinarily thought of as being appropriate only for objects which have height, width, and length—that is, for three dimensional objects. As is evident from the above list of terms, we code a reference to any one of these three physical dimensions as a size term. References to the temporal dimension as when an interval of time is described as short or long are not coded as size modifiers. It should be remembered that although many nouns such as midget or giant could be classified as indicating size differences, it is only the modifying terms that are included in the modifier scale.

"I climbed a HIGH (S+) wall and ran down a NARROW (S-) street between TALL (S+) buildings."

"This boy, who was SHORT (S-), had on a shirt that was too SMALL (S-) for him and a LONG (S+) tie with TINY (S-) polka dots."

"A FAT (S+) lady with a MINIATURE (S-) poodle was walking down a WIDE (S+) street."

"I waited a long time for the train to arrive."

"We had a narrow escape."

"The baby was sitting on a ledge of the skyscraper."
(Coding symbol: A.) References to a person being old or to an object being old are coded A+. References to a person being young or to an object being new are coded A-. Synonymous terms for old, young, and new are also scorable as are comparative age terms such as older and younger. Only these bipolar distinctions in age are included in this class, and mention of a character's specific age is therefore not coded.

"The YOUNG (A-) man was driving a NEW (A-) car."

"I walked up to this ANCIENT (A+) mansion and an ELDERLY (A+) man greeted me."

"My OLD (A+) boyfriend laughed at my YOUNGER (A-) brother."

"All of the rooms in this MODERN (A-) hotel had furniture of the LATEST (A-) style."

"I cuddled and sang to this baby."

"My grandfather is 80 years old."

(Coding symbol: D.) Modifiers included in this class must refer to a bounded area or to some type of container. References to such areas or containers as being full, bulging, or crowded are coded D+. If such areas or containers are described as empty they are coded as D-.

"The church was CROWDED (D+) with people."

"I felt STUFFED (D+) after the large meal."

"The elevator was JAM-PACKED (D+) with passengers."

"His wallet was BULGING (D+) with dollar bills."

"The suitcase was EMPTY (D-)."

"The tree trunk was HOLLOW (D-)."

"I was unable to move in the crowd."

"No one was at home."

"I was all alone in the big house."

(Coding symbol: T.) References to contrasting temperatures are included in this class. Things that are described as warm or hot are coded T+; things that are described as cool or cold, are coded T-. Other descriptive terms that refer to measurable qualities of temperature are also scorable. Objects that are inferentially known to be hot or cold or descriptions of verbal interactions as heated, etc., are not coded.

"I suddenly felt WARM (T+)."

"The water seemed FRIGID (T-) when I stepped into it."

"The wind was CHILLY (T-)."

"The cowboy was cooking something over a fire."

"The ice on the lake was covered with snowy slush."

"He spoke coldly to me when I said that he wasn't such hot stuff."
(Coding symbol: V.) This class contains references to the speed with which objects or people move. Fast movement is coded V+ and slow movement is coded V-. Speed of mental activity is codeable if described in such terms as quickly or slowly, but the word "suddenly" is not coded.

"I walked FAST (V+) down the street."

"I drove the car SLOWLY (V-) through the RAPIDLY (V+) flowing stream."

"I QUICKLY (V+) calculated the answer and wrote it down."

"All of a sudden, I realized that this man who had stopped the truck was some sort of spy."

"She ran to meet her father who was limping toward her."

"The train was suddenly going about 70 miles an hour down the tracks."

(Coding symbol: L.) References to whether an object possesses linear or nonlinear qualities are included in this class. Objects that are described as straight or flat are coded L+, and objects that are described as curved, crooked, or in synonymous terms are coded L-. Knowledge that an object is straight or curved is not sufficient grounds for coding; the dreamer himself must indicate that attention was paid to these qualities of linearity.

"Ahead, the road across the FLAT (L+) prairie rose and TWISTED (L-) around the mountain."

"The girl with the STRAIGHT (L+) hair asked the CURLY-haired (L-) girl for a match."

"The floor was WARPED (L-) and the walks were very BUMPY (L-) .

"She drew a line with the ruler."

"He wanted a straight answer as to whether the deal was on the level or crooked."

(Coding symbol: I.) Contained within this class are modifiers that are used to describe force or expenditure of energy. Modifiers indicating a strong intensity are coded I+; modifiers indicating a weak intensity are coded I-. Intensity modifiers may refer to either physical or mental energy or to emotions and sensations. Simple mention of an emotion generally associated with a strong affect is not sufficient for coding; the dreamer must use some intensity modifier such as very, or greatly, in order to be considered scorable.

"There was a LOUD (I+) clap of thunder followed by a BRIGHT (I+) flash of lightning and a STRONG (I+), VERY (I+) cold wind."

"I worked VERY HARD (I+) on solving the physics problem."

"I felt TERRIBLY (I+) happy for the winner and SLIGHTLY (I-) sad for the loser."

"It was a QUIET (I-), DIMLY-lit (I-) room and as my boyfriend held me GENTLY (I-) in his STRONG (I+) arms, I became A LITTLE BIT (I-) aroused."

"The husband became furious because his wife kept screaming."

(Coding symbol: E.) This class covers evaluative remarks that are made about people or objects. Since so many terms could be considered to represent a judgment, opinion, or evaluation of some sort, we found it difficult to obtain any appreciable degree of coding reliability until we finally limited our coding to only two areas. These two areas are those of aesthetic and moral evaluation. Descriptions indicating that something is considered aesthetically pleasing or morally correct are coded E+; descriptions indicating the aesthetically unpleasant or morally incorrect are coded E-. Reference to any type of stimulus considered to be pleasant or unpleasant to the senses is included in the aesthetic area. Included in the moral area are references to personal conduct as being right, correct, appropriate, or approved, as well as references indicating the opposite kind of evaluation.

"The sunset was BEAUTIFUL (E+)."

"This HANDSOME (E+) boy asked me to dance while the band played a LOVELY (E+) tune."

"A DIRTY-LOOKING (E-) man came out of a SHABBY (E-) hut."

"I thought that was a TERRIBLE (E-) thing for him to say to his mother because she had always been GOOD (E+) to him.

"She made a wrong turn and caused a bad accident."

"None of my answers were right on the quiz and I felt terrible."

Temporal Scale
In a dream report, there may be references to various time intervals, or to particular points in time. Such temporal references are indicated by the coding symbol T. No distinction is made between long and short units of time; thus, unlike the bipolar modifier scales, + and - differentiations are not included as part of the coding symbols. (The thermal class is also indicated by the coding symbol T, but the + or - sign is always included in the thermal coding.) Examples of the two subclasses of temporal references which are coded are included below, as well as examples of situations which are not coded.

1. You should code references to a specific unit of time such as a minute, hour, day, week, or year and references to a nonspecific interval of elapsed time.

"My girl friend spent the DAY with me."

"He worked on the NIGHT SHIFT."

"My roommate went home for the WEEKEND."

"My mother had had the ring for MANY YEARS."

"A FEW MINUTES later I got up and went outside."

"He kept me waiting for a LONG TIME."

"We talked for A WHILE and then he asked me to dance."

2. Code references to a particular time for the purpose of dating an event.

"It was EARLY IN THE MORNING when we started out."

"I said I would meet him about 10 O'CLOCK."

"AT THAT MOMENT, I saw a snake cross the road."

"I thought to myself that the examination is TODAY."

"We were planning to go on a picnic TOMORROW."

"It was the FOURTH OF JULY."

Do not code the age of a person.

"She was ten years old."

"My father is middle-aged.

Do not code the use of the word "time" when it refers to an occasion.

"I had a good time."

"I had a real hard time starting the car."

Do not code sequence of events.

"After the parade, we went to get something to eat."

"Then the next thing that happened, we were in a car."

"After struggling hard, I finally got free."

Do not code salutations in which there is a reference to the time of day.
"He said good night and left."

"I yelled good morning to the mailman."

Negative Scale
The third scale used in the classification of descriptive elements is the negative scale. Some dreamers use direct, straightforward language in describing just what happened in their dreams, while other dreamers take a much more devious approach and describe what was not happening or what something did not resemble. Since these differences in descriptive approach can be discerned in reading dream reports, we decided that a negative scale should be constructed that would reflect these stylistic differences. This is the only scale in which comments by the dreamer on his dream such as "It was not a long dream" are coded. Scoring examples for the two types of negative words are given below. The coding symbol for negative words is N.

1. Use of any of the common negative words such as no, not, none, never, neither, and nor.

"There was NO one at the door when I opened it."

"It was NOT a gun but a bottle that the man had in his hand."

"When I asked him for some candy, he said he had NONE."

"My brother NEVER wears a tie."

"It was NEITHER my mother NOR my father, but some strange couple that was living in our house."

"I recognized the person in my dream, but I can NOT remember who it was now."

"There were NO other people in the dream."

2. Use of negative words that are created by adding certain prefixes to adjectives or adverbs. When these prefixes are added and used in such a way that the word not could be substituted for the prefix without changing the meaning, the word is counted as a negative. These prefixes are un-, im-, in-, il-, ir-, and non-.

"I was UNSURE of my ability and thought I would be INCAPABLE of doing it."

"His behavior was INEXCUSABLE and he broke an IRREPLACEABLE vase."

"We were UNAWARE that what we had done was IMPROPER but the policeman said it was ILLEGAL."

"The mechanic said it was a NONESSENTIAL part that was missing."

"It seemed imminent that he would be imprisoned."

"I thought I was infatuated with this boy until I saw him inebriated."

"After the bomb exploded, the sky was illuminated and I knew the irradiation had begun."